First, Religions in the Roman world were not usually exclusive. A person could devote himself to a particular god while recognizing other gods existed, or even worship various gods as needs arose. Second, by the time of the Roman Empire, the identification of gods tended to reduce their numbers. Babylon and Egypt, for example, worship a wider variety of gods. The Greco-Roman trend was to reduce gods, blending multiple gods into a single deity. Although this seems like a trend toward monotheism, rarely would a Greek or Roman think in terms of a single god to the exclusion of all others.
Third, the Roman period tended to deify virtues, benefits, or abstract ideas, such as salvation Salus or liberty Libertas , Luck Tyche and Fate Moira. Even in Judaism, where monotheism was assumed, the angelic world was developed similar to the minor deity of the Greco-Roman world. Fourth, the power of fate was very important in the early Empire. The idea of fate is critical to Stocism and was worshiped as a deity Moira.
Some religions developed, however, that claimed to have power over fate Asclepius, Isis, Sarapis, for example. Astrology was rather technical, employing astronomy and mathematics. Finally, morality was not closely tied to religion.
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Philosophy dealt with ethical matters, religion with the cultic ceremony. For example, there were few Greco-Roman writers who dealt with the religious problem of sin. Once again, Christianity looks considerably different than most other religions in the Greco-Roman world. Although there were similarities to some mystery religions, the early Christians developed out of their Jewish foundations a distinctly different kind of religion in the Roman world.
Reblogged this on Talmidimblogging. Like Like. Reblogged this on James' Ramblings. While the Romans dealt with morality in a philosophy context, the entire platform of the Jewish faith was the law. The components of the law address morality and a code of conduct for the Jewish people, going far beyond ceremonial practice. With this in mind, there was certainly an understandable divide between Practicing Jews and participants in the Greco-Roman religions. This religious difference between the two coexisting cultures helps us to understand the tension between them.
As I ponder this concept of Christianity being different not just in practice but in thought it makes me wonder if that is what brought so many to it later on. Each god had a planet that corresponded with that deity, and each temple had a Roma eagle slapped in the temple next to the current god, maybe thats what made Christianity so popular. Another major difference between the two religions is the concept of compartmentalizing philosophy and morality.
For Christians, we are taught that no aspect of our life should be compartmentalized…every act, practice, behavior, or thought is all included in our walk of faith. For the Romans, sin was separate from religion, and considered an ethical issue. I find it very important that all of the differences between the Greco-Roman religion and Christianity are highlighted quite clearly.
I find it very interesting how some people can change how they view religion if they were to convert to Christianity from being Greco-Roman or vice versa. There are such distinct differences that it makes me wonder how people ever converted. La persecuzione di un Galileo o l'olocausto di In nessuno dei due casi il fondo originario era di inganno o ciarlataneria; ma, ripetiamo ancora, "era la scienza del mondo antico" espressa attraverso la riverenza, in termini di misticismo carico di timore. The so-called "Hermetic Philosophy" is much quoted by the older writers on the subject of Masonry, and one encounters references to it in the works of the greatest of them all, the venerable Albert Pike.
Pike says of the reputed founder of the so-called Hermetic School:. Under him, Egypt paid homage to seven principal deities" the seven planets. This is condensing into very small compass a great mass of material which has come down to us about a legendary mortal, whose every attribute as recorded is little short of miraculous, and whose supposed writings, Bro.
Pike shows us, greatly influenced the early Christian fathers, particularly Saint Augustine, who held them in great reverence. The name "Hermetic" has become synonymous with "concealment" or "mysterious. They saw little to wonder at in the million and one familiar things that are the marvels of science today; but seemingly laid great value upon a capacity for asserting the impossible. It was the "long suit" of the wise man of once-upon-a-time to affirm "two and two make six, and to prove it I will change this stick into a serpent. There is no doubt, however, that the "Hermetic Wisdom" merits every eulogy that could possibly be bestowed upon it; for it was the collective science of the ancient world, so called because attributed by the Magian astronomers — or rather Astrologers; for the stars were studied for omens, not physical facts — to the influence of the planet Mercury.
He is called "the Author of 20, volumes," just as to Nebo — precisely the same planet Mercury as known 2, years before to the Babylonians — were attributed all the sacred writings of their priests. The British Museum catalogue of Babylonian and Assyrian antiquities states that "Almost every tablet of importance in the Royal Library of Nineveh," most of which have been recovered by the Museum through Prof. Layard and others, "bears upon it the following words: 'The palace of Ashur-Ban-i-Pal, King of Hosts, King of Assyria, who putteth his trust in the gods Ashur and Belit, on whom Nabu and Tashmetu have bestowed ears which hear and eyes which see.
I have inscribed upon tablets the noble products of the work of the scribe, which none of the Kings who have gone before me had learned, together with the Wisdom of Nabu Nebo-Hermes so far as it existeth. As Ashur-Ban-i-Pal reigned in the seventh century B. Among the tablets enumerated is found the world famous "Creation Tablet. We quote the following from Rev. Joseph Fort Newton's book, "The Builders": "The cube was a sacred emblem of the Lydian Kubele, known to the Romans in after ages as Ceres or Cybele; hence, as some aver, the derivation of the word 'Cube.
Nebo in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, Thoth later Serapis in Egypt, Taaut in Phenicia, Daud in Palestine, Apollo, Hermes, Mercury, among the Greeks and Romans, Odin in Scandinavia, and Buddha in India are all one and the same planet Mercury , the planet nearest to and inseparable companion to the Sun, part of the year rising heliacally — that is to say, seen for a few moments at dawn until obscured by the sun's greater light, when it was called "Apollo" — and at another season, at evening, as the Sun's light grows dim, when it was called "Mercury" "Messenger of the Gods".
Il Fr. Pike dice del famoso fondatore della cosiddetta scuola ermetica:. Pike ci informa, hanno fortemente influenzato i primi padri cristiani, in particolare sant'Agostino, che le ha tenuti in grande riverenza. I nostri ingenui antenati certamente diedero poco fastidio agli spacciatori del mistero; ma sembrava che questi esercitavano i loro poteri di convinzione come un uomo forte e potente di professione esercita i suoi muscoli. Figura a sinistra : Ermes Trismegisto Nota lo scorpione, segno del suo posto zodiacale nel Sud.
Il nome "Mercurio" o Mercurius era la traduzione latina del greco Hermes [Ermes]. Layard e altri, "reca le seguenti parole: 'Il palazzo di Ashur-Ban-i-Pal , re degli eserciti, re di Assiria, il quale ripone la sua fiducia negli dei Ashur e Belit , sui quali Nabu e Tashmetu hanno donato orecchie che ascoltano e occhi che vedono. Ho inciso su tavolette i prodotti nobili dell'opera dello scriba, che nessuno dei Re che mi avevano preceduto aveva imparato, insieme con la Sapienza di Nabu Nebo-Ermes fino a quando ora esiste' ".
Tra le tavolette elencate si trova la famosa " Tavoletta della Creazione ". Citiamo quanto segue dal libro del Rev. Joseph Fort Newton, "The Builders": "Il cubo era un emblema sacro della dea Kubele del regno di Lidia , conosciuto dai Romani in epoche successive come Cerere o Cibele; quindi, come alcuni asseriscono, ne segue la derivazione della parola 'Cubo'.
Therefore the center of the zodiacal east is marked by a Triad of Sun, Moon and Mercury; which those read in Alchemistic and Rosicrucian lore will not fail to recognize as the central postulate of both of those famous philosophies.
They were the lesser lights of earlier rituals. Virgo is Demeter or Ceres, and consequently the Kubele and Cybele of the "square stone"; Gemini, the twins, are the youthful Hercules and Apollo "Strength and Beauty" ; while Hermes, in the house of Demeter Virgo , is the Divine Wisdom — for it must be remembered that to the initiate all these pagan deities were but the attributes, emanations, or perceptible qualities of the "One" God, no matter what the "profane" imagined them to be.
As the secret wisdom of the alchemists, developed from the ancient Hebrew Kabbalah , tells us, the combination of "sulphur, salt and mercury" is that which produces the "living Gold," mercury being denoted the "bond" that unites the other two. The alchemical signs for these three elements — or rather four, for under the first, sulphur, was hidden "fire," under the second, "earth," and under two signs of Mercury, air and water" — were respectively the sun, moon and the planet Mercury. Alchemy was really a secret school of philosophy, teaching the same truths as Masonry once taught, only employing the terminology of the chemist and refiner of metals instead of that of the builder.
By this combination is really meant the threefold nature of man — the "soul," which the ancients held to emanate from the sun; the "body," which came under the special influence of the moon; and "spirit," or mental intelligence, which was the gift of Hermes or Mercury — the "mind," or manas , as it was called in Sanskrit, being that which specifically constituted "man.
There is every reason to believe that this doctrine underlay the entire fabric of ancient philosophical paganism, and that the reason why it has not descended to us in the classics is just because it was the "Hermetic" or sealed wisdom.
Pillars were anciently dedicated to Hermes, and the secret of the "ashlars" is closely connected with the double personality of this same old divinity. From India, where it was once Bo-den, the Indo-Germanic races carried this divinity, as Wo-den or Odin, to the farthest confines of Scandinavia. The day of Mercury has always been what is the present Buddhist "sabbath. Il Buddha storico Gautama Sakyamouni non deve essere confuso con il Buddhi ariano la Saggezza Divina , ancora oggi il nome del pianeta Mercurio in India.
We frequently hear of an alleged connection between Freemasonry and so-called "Rosicrucianism" brotherhoods. In the course of the last couple of centuries there have been many hundred claims set up to the title of "Society" or "Fraternity" of the Rosy Cross. Any brother who feels inclined to dip into the question of extinct Masonic rites and degrees, by a short course of Mackey's Masonic Encyclopedia, will be, if not already informed, astonished to find that all the Masonry we are officially aware of today is but a mere fragment of all that has at one time or other figured as of impressive importance to the craft.
In the archives of the Scottish Rite are preserved evidences of the voluntary abdications of a number of imposing Masonic "rites" that once enjoyed high favor and numerous membership, but which eventually dissolved, under pressure of internal dissensions, and the larger hope embodied in the rise of a body so constituted as to obviate the possibility of unbecoming strife and other weaknesses. At the present moment the empty dignities and now meaningless powers of obsolete rites are occasionally heard of as passed from hand to hand, for trifling money considerations, wherever a gull can be induced to believe that he is receiving high Masonic degrees, even though the same may be conferred upon him by a single individual "by virtue of powers," etc.
The chief significance that attaches itself to the revival of interest in the Rosicrucians lies in the fact that, according to the strict spirit of the ancient brotherhood, there can be but one organization in existence entitled to their name and secrets, and that organization never had nor, it is claimed, never will have any public or exoteric existence. It is not the sort of club or society that has officers, holds public or even private meetings and elects eligible persons to membership.
The true Rosicrucian may never meet another of his mystic order on the physical plane. He is not initiated in a hall or chapter room after having paid a fee; but it is made known to him by occult means that he has been found worthy of admission into this literal band of immortals, and thereafter he is shown how to project his perceptions on to a higher plane upon which it is possible for him to meet, know and commune with all his fellow members, who assemble like witches upon a sabbat , in a twinkling of an eye, by merely willing to do so, no matter where their physical bodies may happen to be sojourning.
In fact, the first public gossip concerning the Rosicrucians and their wonderful powers began to be bruited about at the beginning of the seventeenth century. Membership in the fraternity was attributed to various alchemists by the herd, and claimed by numerous charlatans on the other hand. Many tales are told of the discovery of weird underground vaults in otherwise desert places, which upon being opened were found to be brilliantly illuminated by perpetually burning lamps — that is to say, until extinguished by the admission of outer air.
These were said to have been the secret meeting places of the Rosicrucians. From the very nature of Rosicrucianism as described, however, that of tradition must necessarily be spurious, as the mere fact of publicity, upon however private or restricted a scale, is sufficient to stamp it as such. The existence of Rosicrucianism might be claimed, and certain highly endowed scholars and scientists be suspected — nay, openly charged — with being members of its charmed circle; but no genuine record exists of any ancient Rosicrucian Society upon which any theory of continuity might be based by a modern group of students of the occult.
There is quite a successful modern Rosicrucian Society in London, the moving spirit of which was the late Dr. Wynn Westcott, formerly coroner for the County of Middlesex. As a research body, disinterring many interesting legends about the reputed Rosicrucians of the Middle Ages, this latter day society has done good work.
It all sums up in the state of mind of the person most interested. An old Potsdam pensioner once wrote King Frederick the Great in much distress over the suppression of a military decoration, the only one he had ever received.
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The king smilingly wrote on the margin of the complaint, "Pensioner X has herewith our royal permission to wear all the abolished decorations he likes. Our own craft has hardly departed from the use of ancient monitors and lectures connecting Masonry with the beginnings of the human race — Adam, Seth, Enoch, Noah, Moses, and other patriarchs — which had become a laughing stock among our strenuous modernists, when it begins to transpire that the structure of Freemasonry is superior to her traditions, and that he who knows Masonry structurally will have no difficulty whatever in comprehending all these curious connections as apt and purposeful.
When this knowledge becomes more common to the fraternity we shall be in a position to understand the difference between that which guarantees the genuineness of our own antiquity and the claims that any mystical brotherhood may at present set up, of surpassing age, royal descent, and the possession of the fundamental arcane of the universe, without the average Mason's being able to prove that his pretensions have any greater value than those of the newcomer.
Sentiamo spesso parlare di una presunta connessione tra la Massoneria e le cosiddette fratellanze " rosacrociane ". Molte favole si raccontano della scoperta di strane volte sotterranee in luoghi altrimenti deserti, che all'atto dell'apertura si sono rivelati brillantemente illuminati da lampade perennemente accese — vale a dire, fino a quando estinte per l'ammissione dell'aria esterna.
Si diceva che questi fossero i luoghi di incontro segreti dei RosaCroce. Tutto viene a capo nello stato mentale della persona che se ne interessa. Un vecchio pensionato di Potsdam una volta scrisse al re Federico il Grande con molto rammarico, lamentandosi della soppressione di una decorazione militare, l'unica che avesse mai ricevuto. Il re scrisse sorridendo al margine della lagnanza: "Il pensionato X ha il nostro permesso reale di indossare tutte le decorazioni abolite che gli piacciono".
There is no place in Masonry for dogmatic controversy affecting the current convictions of brethren of the craft. In its highest contemplation Freemasonry solely regards and addresses itself to the "Great Architect of the Universe," respecting the Names under which this Unique Identity is apostrophized in every clime, by every race, and by every school of thought. There are no religious differences attached to the adoration of the Supreme Being.
Men differ alone with respect to some of His manifestations of love and solicitude for humanity, making claims to an exclusiveness in one respect or another, which are too often the outgrowth of fast-vanishing racial isolations and the diverse trends of thought consequent upon differences of origin, climate, and environment. In quibbling over these differences, so frequently the result of misunderstandings of identical premises, viewed from diverging angles, men are too prone to forget that the goodness and providence of Almighty God is forever pouring in a mighty deluge upon us, manifesting itself unceasingly and impartially in everything that either experiences or can be experienced.
Many of the ancient philosophers, therefore, taught that man could attain supreme contentment only by realizing his identity with the All. Sensing this, he perceived the resistless operation of the great laws of Being, in perfect poise, harmony, and impartiality, requiring only to be heeded for man to escape the evils and enjoy the benefits thereof during his allotted term, the accidents and mishaps befalling him not being subject to the caprices of an unpropitious Ruler, but consequent upon his own unguarded collisions with unchangeable law.
Therefore the whole problem of human life became the attainment of greater and ever greater knowledge of the natural law, upon which all progress and all security to life and happiness depended in so eminent a degree, and the divine gift of the reasoning faculties, which rendered this possible, was appreciated as God's most precious blessing to man. Thousands of years of experiment and ceaseless vigilance on the part of eager watchers have never resulted in the detection of a single principle so unrelated to the rest of the universal machine as to have no dependence upon it.
Even where the wonders of science have disclosed marvels so intricate as to baffle explanation or analysis, they have at least proved so entirely subject to certain conditions of known factors as to be easily provoked into manifestation or suppressed from view, at the will of man. Year by year, day by day, hour by hour, minute by minute, the infinite details of this great cosmos-pervading law keep on unfolding to human perception, filling all space with their greatness and mocking pursuit in their ultramicroscopic perfections and yet nothing is discovered that had not existence ages before the human mind began to concern itself with its intricacies.
The capacity of mind to see and understand has limitations, and history — that of which it takes cognizance through the medium of the senses — is limitless and without historical beginning or end. Every past age has attempted to place bounds upon that which it is legitimate for man to know or think he knows about the origin and constitution of the wonders about him.
Each era has closed its book of human knowledge with a flaming "FINIS" at the end of an ultimate chapter, and yet the dawn of every other day has ushered in new wonders, new visions, and new truths. In most cases dogmas will be found to revolve round the privilege of classes to rule masses, irrespective of the fact that part of the cosmic law is as sure and continual an oxygenation of the sea of humanity by waves of upheaval as is manifest in seas of water, in which that which is the sluggish depth of today may be the foam-crested wave of tomorrow.
Yet the mind of man, framed in the image of the Creator, even as the receiver of an acoustic instrument must be attuned to the vibrations of the transmittor, that the message may be received as it is sent, has discovered constant and unchanging elements in this stupendous order of varied manifestations, has discovered chaos-banishing laws which must be the same in an atom as in a sun, and so may be exhibited in symbols of dimensions convenient to the stature of contemplative man.
Such are the symbols of Freemasonry — evidences of the truth attributed to Triple-great Hermes, the mystic founder of our craft, that "that which is above may be discovered by examination of that which is below. The Masonic student may concern himself with every branch of research that is capable of throwing light upon the causes that have led men to crystallize their perceptions of immutable law in emblems and symbols. He may pursue each of the various paths of investigation indicated by the obscure phraseology of ritual until he emerges into the full blaze of Masonic light embracing its fundamental truth.
He may unravel the intricacies of ancient philosophies and mythologies, in order to convince himself of their ultimate source in the fountain of revealed wisdom, and he may set his own value upon anthropomorphisms or the embodiment of attributes and principles in fleshly guise, so that what really are the play of natural forces, the sport of the elements, the cycles of worlds, are described in terms taken from the vocabulary of human life.
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Yet, with all this, he may not consciously offend his brother, by striking at the latter's highest individual spiritual contemplations in a humor of disdain or ridicule. Each mind is a universe in little, a cell of the universe in great, one as eternal as the other, and subject to the same law of gradual unfoldment. Some day we shall all know the intricate and the complicated as we at present know that which is simple and few of parts; but of the infinite aggregate, the unfathomable indivisible total, our Masonry teaches us the value.
Non ci sono differenze religiose in riguardo all'adorazione dell'Essere Supremo. Freemasonry is not only all that its most enthusiastic panegyrist ever proclaimed it to be on sentimental, moral, and fraternal grounds, but it is fundamentally and structurally a system of natural theology, proving the existence and attributes of the one true God to the satisfaction of the intellect, and so supplying a bulwark to faith unattainable by any other means. The nature of this proof, although formulated before the pyramids were built, is not so abstruse as might at first be imagined, and is founded on precisely the same assumption as the natural theology of a Paley or a Brougham of our own era — that evidence of design or intention proves the presence of Mind , the wisdom, power, and beauty of which may be inferred from the result.
As in natural theology we look for evidence of a thinking, contriving, planning, improving, wise and beneficent Mind of infinite volume, controlling and directing all things, so let us search among the remaining relics of our remote ancestors for evidence, that, as Kipling exquisitely sings in his ballad of the "Builder," "They too had known. Ancient priesthood believed that the great mass of mankind was too undeveloped to comprehend a philosophy of divinity based upon more or less scientific premises.
Therefore, they carefully conserved their special knowledge, imparting it only to chosen initiates, while treating the masses to a spectacular exoteric system. Such was in fact the origin of the dual system that has prevailed through the ages, which was as much a part of Judaism and primitive and mediaeval Christianity as of the pagan idolatries, by which the priests knew and the people thought they knew. Even some of our most common superstitions are relics of this state of things.
All the prejudice popularly entertained against the number 13 resides not in its "unluckiness," but because it was the key to religions mysteries that the priests did not wish the people to penetrate; hence, if a man started to run every time he encountered this number and would refuse to think of it for fear of breaking his leg, the sacerdotal interests were safe. When the period approached that the average citizen knew more than the hierophant of former years, he was not encouraged, but repressed, and instead of being admitted to the Mysteries was driven back with curses, so that the priestly caste might retain its ascendancy.
Notable exceptions to this were the examples of Egypt and Greece, where enlightenment was, at certain ages, almost universal. It was the suppression of the Mysteries that enslaved Europe for centuries. If the ultimate and all-sustaining secret of Freemasonry may be openly expressed in a few words, it will be these:. The entire course of nature is manifested in cycles. Some of these are scientifically real, others are but appearances based upon the presence and position of the observer upon the earth, away from which they have no true existence. For instance, there is no night except as we are temporarily on the shadow side of our globe during its diurnal rotation.
There is this movement of the earth upon its axis; there is the annual revolution that we term the year; and there is the stupendous cycle called the precession of the equinoxes, which requires nearly 26, years for its accomplishment. There are the relative velocities and courses of the planets, the axial revolution of the sun, their angles of inclination, the atomic weights of metals, the phenomena of light, color, crystalization, and gravitation. These can be technically expressed in no other wav than in terms of mathematics and geometry. When the results are expressed in their simplest forms, the latter prove to be the same rudimentary geometrical figures that supply the structure of crystals, and all blend together into the marvelous triangle that caused old Pythagoras to cry "Eureka!
By careful computation we are able to reconstruct this really divine system, and we find that the exact proportions relating to the celestial correlation in question were lavishly and exclusively employed in the architecture of all the temples of old, in all the culture lands of the world, both east and west. Still greater does our wonder grow when we recognize in lodge and chapter the whole mechanism of this wonderful natural science, and what was before hidden and dark bursts upon us as a beautiful, perfect, and complete whole.
Pertanto, hanno accuratamente conservato le loro conoscenze speciali, impartendole solo agli iniziati scelti, mentre trattavano le masse di un sistema exoterico spettacolare. Tale era infatti l'origine del duplice sistema che ha prevalso nel corso dei secoli, che era tanta parte sia del giudaismo e del cristianesimo primitivo e medievale, sia come delle idolatrie pagane, con le quali i sacerdoti conoscevano e la gente pensava di conoscere.
L'intero corso della natura si manifesta in cicli. Alcuni di questi sono scientificamente reali, altri sono solo apparizioni basate sulla presenza e posizione dell'osservatore sulla terra, lontano dal quale non hanno una vera esistenza. Questi possono essere tecnicamente espressi in nient'altro che in termini di matematica e geometria.
Tramite un'attenta computazione siamo in grado di ricostruire questo sistema veramente divino, e scopriamo che le proporzioni esatte relative alla correlazione celeste in questione erano abbondantemente ed esclusivamente impiegate nell'architettura di tutti i templi del passato, in tutte le terre colte del mondo , sia nell'oriente che nell'occidente. The man whose name will always be indelibly associated with the above Triangle and the celebrated figure called the "47th Problem of Euclid" derived from it, is the great Greek Initiate and Teacher, Pythagoras of Krotona B.
We frequently see it called into question as to whether Pythagoras and his famous problem had really anything to do with the foundation of Freemasonry as the older writers on the subject claim. Personally lie wrote nothing. His principal chroniclers were Philolaus B. He is quoted and otherwise referred to by many others, and what we learn of his philosophy from these sources indicates that the "number philosophy" of the Gnostic sect of Marcionites strongly resembled it.
A great revival of Pythagorean philosophy took place in Europe during the latter part of the 17th century, just at the period when Freemasonry began to attract public attention. Johannes Meursius , Marcus Meibonius , and Athanasius Kircher a Jesuit, collected and republished all the fragments they could find from the preceding authorities. If Pythagoras studied philosophy among the Medean Magi at Babylon — and the records at least state that he was a pupil of the Chaldeans — he imbibed from them the pure Semitic philosophy thus expressed in his transmitted sayings:.
The Monad is the beginning of everything. Unity is the principle of all things. If Pythagoras was, as credibly stated, initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries in Greece, the Mysteries of Isis in Egypt, and the Brahmanic Mysteries at Elephanta and Ellora, India, he learned the same truth in each of these places, where the Apporheta communicated to the Epopt i.
We have archeological remains of the highest antiquity to prove that this problem of the right-angled triangle of , of which the Euclidian figure is but one of several possible extensions , was the central symbol of the religion of widely dispersed millions during many centuries. The theorems of the sacred geometry of the ancient philosophers are not included in the works of Euclid , even though subject to the same mechanical laws he expounds.
This "sacred geometry," which is the branch underlying all Masonic symbolism, was not intended for the purpose of teaching Operative Masons how to make truly square corners, but for the far more noble and glorious purpose of demonstrating the unity of God, the likeness of the human mind to the divine mind, the omnipotence and omnipresence of God, and the immortality of the soul.
Waving aside the fact that 3 is a male number because odd, and 4 female because even 3 representing Osiris, 4 Isis, and 5 Horus , the importance of "the triangle of Huramon" Horus-Ammon-Hiram , ages older than Pythagoras, as a human contemplation and coequal with creation as a divine principle, resides in the fact that it was the center, core, or nucleus of the ancient sacred philosophy, to which we owe so much.
Its symbol for at least 5, years has been an eye, now the "all-seeing eye" of Freemasonry. From it emanated, as a plant from a seed, the various canons of symmetry and order time, space, number, and proportion , which still reign over the heart and intelligence of man, for man does not regard as beautiful that which his eyes show him by consensus of agreement to be ugly.
His recognition of the fitness of certain forms and the laws of their combinations is as much a part of nature as gravity and electricity. Quite as true as the fact that the perception of the wonderful truths we have enumerated was just cause for Brother Pythagoras to have indulged in the somewhat extravagant barbecue attributed to him, is the circumstance that the prehistoric Mound Builders of America employed this same Pythagorean triangle to demonstrate the fourth dimension.
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Personalmente, la menzogna non ha scritto nulla. I suoi principali cronisti furono Filolao B. I teoremi della geometria sacra degli antichi filosofi non sono inclusi nelle opere di Euclide , anche se soggetti alle stesse leggi meccaniche che egli espone. Il suo simbolo per almeno 5. The precise nature of the various connections must be established by analogies, rather than by concrete examples, because the peculiar geometrical figure, in question, was probably deemed one of the sacred mysteries by the ancients and peculiarly one which might not be hewn, cut, carved or marked in any manner by which it might become legible or intelligible to the profane.
Its delineation, graphically, we probably first owe to the Arab geometers of the early days of our present era, among whom no scruple could have prevailed. The only truly ancient example the writer has ever seen is on a little clay Tessera from an Egyptian tomb forty centuries old, upon which it is rudely, but unmistakably, present. The psychology of geometrical science to the sympathetic student is as thrilling as that of music or color to specialists therein.
There are marvels in Mathematics, indeed, but in Geometry, mathematics' are applied and every point, line, superficies and solid, in its relations and potentialities bespeaks a subtle something which Finite Mind instinctively recognizes as the production of Infinite Mind. We would be utterly unable to realize, much less formulate the notion of "Law," pervading Cosmos, if all facts and forces did not present unswerving, uncompromising obedience to the geometrical verities which are at the root of all of that which we term "Manifestation "— visualized existence.
Of the limited volume of these fundamental geometrical laws — and there are surprisingly few to account for the splendors of the Universe they present to our vision, the fact that the hypothenuse of a right-angle of three to four, invariably and to the ultra-microscopic fraction, measures five, as we have seen, is one of the most perfect proofs of pre-determined plan.
The resulting triangle of is not the only example of such a correlation between exact quantities, for Geometry is full of them, but it is the simplest and most basic and calls attention to countless other remarkable factors to the cosmic whole, to which its intimate relationship may be demonstrated. In order to get our bearing, we are compelled to formulate an ascertained law of development in all of the latter.
Their unique basis is the recognizable and ascertainable phenomena of the universe, the definition of which constitutes what modern man terms "Science," but which the ancient mind referred more directly to Deity, as an arbitrary power. All such definition was necessarily confined to terms of time, space, number and proportion, which can only be expressed in those of Mathematics or Geometry, the most stupendous of all contemplations being the observation of the vast cosmic machine from an astronomical standpoint.
That which struck the ancient mind with the greatest wonder was, self evidently, the fact that if all of the wonders of the Universe resolved themselves into mathematical expressions and the latter into geometrical figures, often simple ones at that, which in turn melted into the simple fundamentals of the latter science, then in the latter must be found the dynamic concentrations which most closely approach a conception of Divinity. A further step along the line of developing rational occultism was gained by the employment of identical characters to express both letters and numbers.
That which we now call the decimal system was worked by "the power of Nine" or "three times three. The letters of the Hebrew alphabet and the Greek letters derived from an analogous source, counted from Aleph or Alpha , 1 to Teth or Theta , 9 and from Jod or Iota , 10, to Peh or Pi , Beginning with R, in Greek, the Hebrew letters are one digital value higher than the corresponding Greek letters. It must also be remarked that the Hebrew letter Vau or 6, corresponded to the now missing Digamma in Greek, once placed between Eta and Zeta.
It is relatively easy, now, to follow the Egyptian philosophy of the 47th problem, which attributed the square of 3 to Asar Osiris , the square of 4 to Ishah Isis and the square of 5 to Chr Horus. Let us remark, in passing, that Chr is the Sanscrit word for "Light," RCH, reversed and is the origin of the tradition that upon "discovering" the 47th problem, Pythagoras joyfully uttered the word Eureka. Greek mythology is full of stolen Oriental sacred words thus metamorphosed.
Asar , which is 3x54, , is Ash Ra , the Solar Fire, Ishah a name still preserved in the Arabic Ayesha , "The Female," meaning terrestrial "Nature, 4x54 or , which is the sum of the cubes of 3, 4 and 5, and Chr the Male principle or fructifying spirit of Nature, is 2x54, or Egyptian philosophy regarded the great Cosmic process of generation and regeneration as resultant upon the infinitely reiterated passages of the Male principle through the Female principle, Father and Son being, spiritually, a Unit "I and my Father are One".
The number 9x30 represents the number, in days, of human gestation and is the sum of Father and Son. Thus, merely supplying the natural philosophical postulate that the Father passing his vital principle through the Mother, continues to live in the Son, we secure a Pythagorean triangle of In present conclusion, it is regrettable that we have only just begun to enter upon the mere fringe of this wonderful subject, concerning which, if anything, may most truly be said that "the World itself could not contain all the books which might be written concerning it.
Vedi a sinistra Una Tessera in terracotta trovata in una tomba egizziana.
Al fine di stabilire la nostra posizione, siamo obbligati a formulare una legge di sviluppo accertata in tutte queste ultime. A partire dalla R, in greco, le lettere ebraiche hanno un valore numerale superiore alle corrispondenti lettere greche. Va anche osservato che la lettera ebraica Vau o 6, corrispondeva alla Digamma ora mancante in greco, una volta collocata tra Eta e Zeta. A sinistra Il triangolo Pitagorico usato dagli antichi Ebrei. A sinistra Il "quarantasettesimo Teorema" era tra gli antichi egiziil simbolo di Osiride, Iside e Horus. Quindi, semplicemente fornendo il postulato filosofico naturale che il Padre trasmette il suo principio vitale attraverso la Madre, e continua a vivere nel Figlio, assicuriamo un triangolo pitagorico di A sinistra Il "Quarantasettesimo teorema" un simbolo del logos creativo.
The next step beyond that of embodying the sacred proportions in architecture and art was to contrive their vocal expression. The ancient number-letter system of the Orient is often difficult for the Masonic student to understand; but when one looks into it carefully it is comparatively simple. In the days before the invention of symbols for figures Hebrew scholars expressed numbers by letters, and a Greek testament shows the employment of this method of expression by the Greeks also, as in Revelation xiv, 18, where the number is written Xsu.
Mackey's Masonic Encyclopedia refers to it under the head of "Alphabet. The common origin of the two series is manifest in their agreement up to the letter P. The ancient employment of the decimal system generally denied by scholars is proved by the arrangements in digits, tens, and hundreds, and the greater antiquity of the Greek series by its agreement with Egyptian, Chaldaic and Hindu Sanskrit words, older than Hebrew.
The many qualities peculiar to numbers and the prevalence in Nature of forms answering to the figures of geometry caused many ancient philosophers to believe that the entire scheme of the universe was based upon mathematics. Those curious scientific playthings called "acrostics" and "magic squares" were looked upon as marvels of mystic meanings, during a bygone age.
Understanding this, we can translate into their proper number values the proportions, ground plans, and ornaments of ancient temples, besides countless biblical names and phrases, classic proper names, magic words, and above all the passwords of our Masonic craft which explain the acts and allusions that accompany them. This is really what constituted the speculative Masonry of oldtime seers, and shows it to have been far beyond the mental reach of the illiterate stonecutters — to whom so many of our brethren love to ascribe the authorship of our fraternity.
The "nonary" system derived from nine, or "3 times 3" is identical with what we now call the "decimal" system. The ancients, prior to the invention of the Abacus , employed a series of decimal places running from right to left, represented by shallow dishes or holes scooped in the sand. The empty hole represented zero position without number. As soon as there were 10 pebbles or other counters in any hole, they were removed and one was placed in the decimal position to the left. By this means decimal computations up into the trillions were possible, with the precision of an adding machine.
Certain numbers show the peculiarity of representing two different sacred quantities; as, for instance, the number This has a special significance of its own, but was constructed from 3 times 8 24 counters 8 units, 8 tens, and 8 hundreds — there being a mystic relationship between the two ideas represented and between the two numbers involved. To the brother who is really interested in learning the truth about this wonderfully constituted ritual of ours, it may be emphasized that failure to know or recognize these methods of the ancients has been the reason why so many of the past expounders of Masonry have failed to "hit the mark.
Il Sistema della Numerologia. L'Enciclopedia massonica di Mackey si riferisce ad esso sotto il titolo di "Alfabeto". Quei curiosi giocattoli scientifici chiamati " acrostici " e " quadrati magici " durante un'epoca passata erano considerati meraviglie di significati mistici. Comprendendo questo, possiamo tradurre nei loro valori numerici appropriati le proporzioni, le planimetrie e gli ornamenti dei templi antichi, oltre a innumerevoli nomi e frasi bibliche, nomi propri classici, parole magiche e, soprattutto, le parole d'ordine della nostra Arte massonica, le quali spiegano gli atti e le allusioni che le accompagnano.
Gli antichi, prima dell'invenzione dell'Abaco, impiegavano una serie di cifre decimali che andavano da destra a sinistra, rappresentate da piatti poco profondi o buchi scavati nella sabbia. Il buco o piatto vuoto rappresentava zero posizione senza numero. Non appena ci fossero stati 10 sassolini o altri contatori in qualsiasi buco o piatto, questi venivano rimossi e un sassolino veniva messo nella posizione decimale a sinistra.
In questo modo erano possibili calcoli decimali fino ai trilioni, con la precisione di una macchina calcolatrice. No term throughout the entire range of Masonic symbolism so completely clenches the connection between Freemasonry and the Ancient Mysteries as this most important link. The number 9 is a part of the great harmony of the universe, and as such was recognized longer ago than man has history.
A study of the peculiarities of this number will soon set at rest any wonder as to why it has secured such a paramount place in symbolism. Nine — that is to say, the nine digits — is the basis of number, and therefore of time, space, and proportion, which cannot be expressed in any terms but those of numbers. The ancient number philosophy was the basis of every symbolic system of expressing the nature and attributes of Deity that the world has ever known.
Its connection with geometry is fundamental. The symbols of "Three Times Three" among all these peoples are so much alike as at once to arrest the attention of the antiquarian. It is well known that any number, great or small, multiplied by 9 will give a product the sum of whose digits will exactly equal nine. This mergence of everything into 9 was likened to consumption by fire, which caused 9 to be termed the number of Vulcan, which latter name was derived from Tubal Cain, the Semitic "spirit of fire," that which resolves all that it attacks into its original elements.
Nine thus stands in the great old number philosophy as the representative of the primordial substance from which all emanated and to which all must eventually return. The remaining eight digits were accepted as the elements of the "dual principle," embracing positive and negative, spiritual and material, male and female, odd and even, etc. The spiritual or "male" numbers were the indivisible "odd" ones; while those representing matter, the female principle, were "even" and divisible.
Multiplying each of the first eight digits by 9 gives us 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, and 81, the sum of which is , a number greatly reverenced by ancient mystics because, among many reasons, added to the number , the period of human gestation in days, it produced the sacred , and indicated the incarnation of the solar logos in humanity. From earliest times the letter M, with the value of 40, has been the mystical character of this incarnate "Word. In "Orient" Masonry the letter M is employed instead of G in connection with the square and compasses. John xx, Another designation is that of the "Alpha and Omega," the two supplementary letters of A.
Revelation i, 8 et seq. Let us see where we now stand with regard to the connection with these particular circumstances of primitive Freemasonry. The letter M 40 represents because it is the sum of 18 and 22 which multiplied together produce it. The ancients made frequent use of words each letter of which was the initial of another word, the whole forming a sentence.
Thus the Romans constructed from A. We shall profit by one or two sage oriental reflections upon this wonderful figure 9. The "Nikita Karma," or Brahmin sacred book of occult science, says, "It is now time for the virtuous father who possess a son, over whose head has rolled three times three years, the figure of the tutelary spirits , to perform the ceremony of the Oupanayana " introduction to the study of the liberal arts and sciences.
He should ponder the Three Triads which have sprung from Him and have created the 8,, creatures, at the head of which is man. The ninefold constitution of the universe was set forth by the ancients as follows: Three forms of matter, gaseous, liquid, and solid; three forms of motion, from a center, to a center, round a center; three magnitudes of bodies, length, breadth, and thickness.
As not one of these elements is thus ever found simple and without admixture of the others, all material beings, being composed of these three elements, each triple, can therefore be designated by the figurative number three times three ; hence it became the symbol of incorporization. Hence also the name of 'ninefold envelop' given to matter. A sinistra — Simboli del 3 volte 3 1. Babilonese ed Ebreo la verga di Aronne ; 2. Greco antico; 3. Nove quindi sta nella grande vecchia filosofia numerica come rappresentante della sostanza primordiale da cui tutti emanavano e alla quale tutti alla fine devono tornare.
Le restanti otto cifre erano accettate come elementi del "duplice principio", abbracciando positivo e negativo, spirituale e materiale, maschile e femminile, dispari e pari, ecc. I numeri spirituali o "maschili" erano quelli "dispari" indivisibili; mentre quelli che rappresentano la materia, il principio femminile, erano "pari" e divisibili. Rivelazione i, 8 e seguenti. Vediamo ora dove ci troviamo rispetto alla connessione con queste particolari circostanze della Massoneria primitiva. Gli antichi facevano spesso uso di parole, ciascuna delle quali era l'iniziale di un'altra parola, mentre il tutto formava una frase.
I fondatori delle nostre moderne formule rituali — anche se non ci hanno dato alcuna indicazione — hanno almeno lasciato per noi scoprire l'uso della stessa formula nel termine G. Trarremo beneficio da uno o due esempi di riflessione orientale su questa meravigliosa figura 9. Egli "dovrebbe quindi contemplare la perfezione infinita di Brahma: dovrebbe meditare sulle Tre Triadi che sono emanate da Lui e hanno creato le 8. Da qui anche il nome di 'nove volte l'involucro' dato alla materia". All modern theology has its rise in the immeasurably old "number philosophy" of the ancient world.
These two combinations are the two fundamental right angles of all geometry and the ones upon which most of our symbolisms are founded. The astounding recurrence of the number 7, not only in geometrical figures, but in countless curious objects of human speculation, caused it to be regarded with superstitious awe.
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It was regarded as one of good augury because most of the things beneficial to mankind came in series of sevens. When the ancient star gazers had finally determined the planets of our universe those, of course, discernible to the naked eye , each item of the numerous septenary sets conceived of by our forefathers was attributed to the influence of one of the planets, deemed the dwelling of a superior intelligence active for the good or ill of humanity. They had other names as gods in nearly every oriental country. To the early Christians they were the Angels of the Seven Churches.
They were represented among the Jews, Babylonians, Egyptians, and Persians by seven branched candlesticks Menorah or seven-flamed altar fires. A list of their supposed emanations would be almost interminable; but here are a few to go on with:. The seven vowels, primary colors, notes of music, metals, days of the week, liberal arts, rounds of the spiritual ladder or staircase, deadly sins, sorrows of the Virgin Mary; the seven rays or Heptaktis of Jao Sabaoth among the Chaldeans; the seven rays of Indra in Hindu Mythology; the seven stars of the Pleiades, in Taurus; the Seven Ages of Man, not invented by Shakespeare, but quoted by Solon, the Athenian lawgiver, and by the school of Hippocrates; the seven Hyades, the seven stars of the Great Bear, forming a Swastika, in which the Hindus placed their seven Rishi or sages of primitive wisdom; seven wonders of the world; seven reeds to Pan's pipe; seven strings to Apollo's Lyre; seven gifts of the Holy Ghost; seven champions of Christendom; seven sleepers of Ephesus; seven Amshaspands of Persian theology, and seven Heavens.
The number 7 times 7 was still more sacred, and seven seven-pointed stars ornament the collar of a Grand Master of Masons under the York rite. Of course there are a hundred more considerations of this interesting number; but almost all may be traced to different racial speculations on the same themes, derived from the contemplation by the ancient Sabeans of the seven planets of our universe. Tutta la teologia moderna ha la sua origine nella incommensurabile "filosofia del numero" del mondo antico.
Queste due combinazioni sono i due angoli retti fondamentali di tutta la geometria e quelli su cui si fonda la maggior parte dei nostri simbolismi. A sinistra — La Menorah, il candelabro ebraico a sette bracci e il suo simbolismo. Avevano altri nomi come dei in quasi tutti i paesi orientali. Per i primi cristiani erano gli Angeli delle Sette Chiese. Erano rappresentati tra ebrei, babilonesi, egiziani e persiani da sette candelabri ramificati Menorah o fuochi d'altare a sette fiamme.
Un elenco delle loro supposte emanazioni sarebbe quasi interminabile; ma qui ci sono alcuni con cui andare avanti:. Ovviamente ci sono ancora un centinaio di altre considerazioni su questo numero interessante; ma quasi tutti possono essere ricondotti alle diverse speculazioni razziali sugli stessi temi, derivati dalla contemplazione dei sette pianeti del nostro universo fatta dagli antichi Sabei. One of the finest examples of the application of the ancient number Philosophy, is to be found in the very first verse of the first chapter of Genesis, which reads as follows: "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth," etc.
The Holy Bible, aside from the beautiful quality of the Elizabethan or rather Jacobean English of its translators, which rings so sweetly to the Anglo-Saxon ear, is not an English document. It is the best rendition that the best men of several periods have been able to give us, according to their best contemporary lights, of a Hebrew "Old Testament" and a Greek "New Testament.
As original documents, in their respective original tongues, there is no secret among scholars that the first reflects a great volume of Chaldean mysticism and that the second bears the impress of the schools of Alexandria. The philosophical system known as that of the "Chaldean Numbers" is sufficiently in evidence in the works quoted to disprove any suspicion that they are an invention for the purpose of proving something connected with modern Masonry.
They are the basis of the so-called Pythagorean system, which sought to erect a complete theory of cosmogony on a mathematical basis, and we are now justified in believing that Pythagoras did no more than pass into Greece that which he learned from the hierophants of Chaldea and Central India. Many Hebrews and Greeks employ the letters of their respective alphabets as numbers, to this very day. The "Ineffable" Name is the most remarkable of these cabalistic words, because it can be shown in various ways to be the pivotal formula upon which turned the seven primitive sciences of the Chaldeans.
In the original texts there are over a dozen different names of Deity, which are uniformly translated "God," even though individually they possess shades of meaning conveying notions of special divine attributes. The former, the letters of which are valued as , are quoted by Mme. Blavatsky as giving the Pi proportion when written in a circle. Arranged as an acrostic, however, in the 25 squares of Pythagoras' "square on the hypothenuse," and employing only the digits in the final expression see illustration , the result is much better.
This problem is one of the most noted Egyptian hieroglyphs, and is profusely sculptured on the facade of the great Temple of Hathor at Denderah. La Proporzione del "Pi greco" e Genesi. Il primo, le cui lettere sono valutate come , sono citate da Mme. Blavatsky come dare la proporzione Pi greco, quando scritto in un cerchio. Elohim Alhim la proporzione del Pi greco.